Many statutes around the world describe sexually harassment as conduct of a sexual nature which is unwanted or unwelcome and which has the purpose or effect of being intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive. Sexual harassment in Australia is also covered by state based anti-discrimination legislation. Legislation also frequently refers to vicarious liability, whereby organisations may be held liable unless they can establish they took all reasonable steps to prevent the conduct or that they promptly corrected the behaviour after it became evident. Sexual harassment includes such unwelcome sexually determined behaviour as physical contact and advances, sexually coloured remarks, showing pornography and sexual demand, whether by words or actions. Such conduct can be humiliating and may constitute a health and safety problem; it is discriminatory when the woman has reasonable grounds to believe that her objection would disadvantage her in connection with her employment, including recruitment or promotion, or when it creates a hostile working environment. Organisations have responded to the problem of sexual harassment by producing policies and collective agreement clauses, issuing guidance on complying with laws, providing training and introducing complaints procedures. Yet sexual harassment continues to be experienced by many women and some men in a variety of organisational settings. However, like other forms of sexual violence such as rape,  the problem often goes unreported. Behaviours that define sexual harassment are variously classified, but are often noted to occur on a continuum, from physical forms which are generally considered more serious, such as unwanted touching, sexual propositions and sexual assault, to non-physical forms, which are often thought to be less serious, such as the display of offensive materials, personal insults and ridicule, leering, offensive comments and gestures. In terms of who experiences and perpetrates sexual harassment, studies have overwhelmingly demonstrated that most reports of victimisation are by women against men; around 85 percent of complaints are filed by women and around 15 percent by men where most perpetrators are male.
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The requirement for such athletes to medically reduce hormone levels in order to compete as women plays into a discriminatory and stereotyped equivalence between testosterone, masculinity, strength and achievement that has been challenged by medical doctors, human rights, and intersex advocates, with the scientific basis questioned. The proposed method of reduction and verification requires athletes to take additional hormones with potential negative side effects. This process can result in further human rights violations, just as previous invasive testing to determine the sex of female athletes has done.
NCBI Bookshelf. This chapter reviews the information gathered through decades of sexual harassment research. It provides definitions of key terms that will be used throughout the report, establishing a common framework from the research literature and the law for discussing these issues. In reviewing what sexual harassment research has learned over time, the chapter also examines the research methods for studying sexual harassment and the appropriate methods for conducting this research in a reliable way. The chapter provides information on the prevalence of sexual harassment and common characteristics of how sexual harassment is perpetrated and experienced across lines of industry, occupation, and social class.
The Maldives would like to thank the working group on discrimination against women for their report acknowledging the significant efforts that have been made by Human Rights mechanisms and United Nations agencies to garner good practices. Protection and promotion of rights of both women and men, including children and all vulnerable groups in the society are a key policy and political priorities of the Maldives. The Maldives has a population representing an equal ratio of women to men. The Government of Maldives gives high importance to promote and uphold gender equality in the Maldives. The Maldives is encouraged by the significant progress made, since the adoption of Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women and the Beijing Declaration, to annul discriminatory laws that persist in many parts of the world. In the recent years, the Maldives has enacted and begun the implementation of several legal instruments for the protection of women from all forms of discrimination: those include the Sexual Harassment and Prevention Act , Domestic Violence act in , Sexual Offenses Act and the very recently enacted Gender Equality Act which came in to force early this year. As a landmark piece of legislation in the Maldives, the Gender Equality Act ensures rights of women by equal opportunities for both women and men. It prohibits all forms of gender discrimination and enshrines in law, the principle of equal pay for equal work, and ensures equal access and opportunities to participate in public spheres. It emphasises equal outcomes and recognises that the State has the obligation to combat the deeply entrenched patriarchal culture based on gender stereotypes for the empowerment of women socially, economically and politically. We echo with the report that cultural rights are central to the realization of human rights of women, and misrepresentation of culture is not a valid base for discriminatory practices and barriers against women.